Envis Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Friday, May 24, 2024




Photographs: Internet



Agriculture is the dominant land use category in the state. It account for about for about 54.11 per cent of the total geographical area of the state. Including persons dependent on plantation, more than 80 per cent of the total population of Assam is dependent on agriculture. With the increase of population and the development of agro-technology, lots of changes take place in the agricultural scenario of the state. The net area sown as well as the gross cropped area increased significantly in the last few decades. This decreases the area under other uses especially area under forest. Although, the development in agriculture has tremendous important in the economy of the state but the ecological impacts of the changing land use pattern need to be considered.


Agriculture is the primary sector in the state's economy. The socio-economic condition of Assam largely depends on its agricultural production. Thereby, the Assam department of agriculture has decided to take up various development measures to ensue growth in crop production.


Agriculture plays the chief role of revenue earning in Assam economy. The state of Assam experiences plenty of rainfall and possess a fertile land which is extremely advantageous for cropping. This has led to the flourishing growth in food crops and staples in Assam agriculture. Rice is the main food crop in Assam agriculture as it is the main diet in the state too. Those who are engaged in the agricultural department of Assam fully concentrates on cultivating rice as it falls under their main priority. Other food crops cultivated in Assam agriculture include jute, sugarcane, fruits, tea, pulses, coconut, potatoes, cotton, and arecanuts. More than 50 percent of the total population of the state are involved in agricultural activities of Assam.


Assam agriculture is now focusing on horticulture segment of the state. Horticultural crops of Assam agriculture such as coconut, citrus, banana, black pepper, and papaya have been placed on the priority list and a range of plantation materials have been ordered for these crops to increase its productivity. Sugarcane is claimed to be one of the main cash crops in the Kharif season in Assam. Also various pesticides and other protection measures are being taken up by the agricultural department of Assam to assure safety to the plantation in the state. All these have contributed to the state's marked productivity in agriculture to a great extent and with the advent to newer schemes, the agriculture of Assam will soon reach the peak of fecundity.


Agricultural Pollution:

Agricultural activities that cause pollution include confined animal facilities, grazing, pesticide spraying, irrigation, fertilizing, planting, and harvesting. The major agricultural pollutants that result from these activities are sediment, nutrients, pathogens, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural activities also can damage habitat and stream channels. Agricultural impacts on surface water and ground water can be minimized by properly managing activities that can cause agricultural pollution.


Nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium in the form of fertilizers, manure, sludge, and crop residues are applied to enhance production. When they are applied in excess of plant needs the productivity of land reduces.


Pesticides, herbicides, and fungicides are used to kill pests and control the growth of weeds and fungus. These chemicals can destroy the quality of agricultural land.


Agriculture Map of Assam: 



Tea Garden Locations in Assam Map: 



Salt Affected Areas in Assam Map (1:50000) : 2005-06




Erosion in Assam:  (1:50000) : 2005-06 



The Assam State Agriculture Policy 

Essential Commodity Act 1955

Seed Act1966

Fertiliser Control Order1985

Information Act on Agriculture 2005

´╗┐Assam Agriculture Vision 2025

Agro-Climatic Zones of Assam

Agricultural Trend of Area, Production and Productivity of Crops (2000-2015)









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